It was not the place where the Iceman Ötzi was supposed to be a mosque. The organ, which is not in the right place, escaped the hands of researchers who were more than 20 years old. But in 2009, during the new radiographic scans, the researchers eventually found its place; It was under the ribs, where the lower part of the lungs had to be. And it was full of stuff.
Ever since 1991, when a pair of hikers found this hunter of 5.300 years in the Alps, the researchers are examining the frozen, wrinkled form and the violent death of Ötzi. Sheep and goat skin; tooth decay, probable cold biting tuber on the toe, parasitic worm eggs in the intestine and tattooed ink on the skin …
( Explanation of Buzadam Ötzi by Infographic )
Now, the researchers who have undergone stomach testing have determined the last meal of ice-cold Ötzi: dried mountain goat meat and oil, alageyik, einkorn wheat and toxic fern traces. The results of this week’s research are an old diary and offer tips on possible ways of preparing food.
By the end of the 1990s, researchers who could not find the meat of Ettzi studied the nitrogen isotypes of their hair and reached diet tips that pointed out that it was a vegetarian. Later, analyzing the column content of the large intestine revealed that the Ötzi was very omnipotent, indicating that the day before death was not just cereal, but also avalanche and goat meat.
But in this last study, scientists were trying to find the full range of varieties that constitute the last meal of the Ötzi. And in order to do this, they have to take samples of mideas.
The researchers found the lost organs, examining the gall stones formed at the bile bract of Ötzi by examining a small section underneath the liver near the midge. The team, which placed the position of the surrounding organs in the radiographic images, finally found the midi.
However, in order to take samples from the midair, scientists had to solve the mummy that was protected at -6 degrees to prevent microbial invasion. An endoscopic instrument was then used to draw 11 drops of brown-yellow colored fluid from the stomach and intestines.
The research team first glanced over the content. “It’s clear that under a microscope, it’s a multi-faceted diet,” says researcher microbiologist Maixner. Small stains of undigested fibrous plant and meat fibers appeared in the sample and were surrounded by turbid oil. The team then started the test sequence, which included DNA, proteins, lipids, metabolites and more.
Ötzi’s last meal
Lipids and protein analysis showed that Ötzi was eating both muscle and oil of the mountain goat (Capra ibex), a goat still common in the Alps.
But while DNA analysis shows that alagei (Cervus elaphus) is part of the meal, researchers did not understand which piece of this animal eaten by Ötzi. One possibility is that Euthi has exhausted an organ such as the spleen, liver, or brain of your leg. Researchers say it is very difficult to determine this.
However, how could the meat be examined for preparation. The microstructure of the meat and its chemistry were examined and compared with modern cooked and uncooked meats. So it was understood that the meat of the eats was not heated above 60 degrees. Fresh meat was quickly dried up to be able to protect this meat because it quickly deteriorated. The presence of carbon stains also indicates that the meat may have been smoked.
Euthi also eaten einkorn wheat and poisonous ferns. When the fern is eaten at adequate doses, it is associated with anemia in cattle and blindness in sheep. It can also have carcinogenic effects. Still, some people are still able to consume in small quantities.
“We might even think that stomach pain can be treated with this fern, because we knew that Ettzi was suffering from some stomach pathogens,” Maixner said. But this theory is, at least, a bit too ambitious for me. ” Another possibility is that they wrap their food with ferns and accidentally eat ferns with these foods.
Looking back at the past of the euthanasia
This diet shows a well-prepared meal containing some fiber, protein and plenty of energy-rich fat. “Appropriate clothes were familiar with preparing suitable fishing gear, and this was also true for the diet,” Maixner said. Obviously they were well prepared. “
Although only one sample is taken, the results provide a detailed overview of the final hours of the Ötzi.
“I do not know if we can get anything better than this,” says biological anthropologist Katherine Ryan Amato.
Researchers have used indirect methods to look at diets for a long time, to see changes according to time. “This actually allows us to see on a better scale and talk in more detail,” Amato said. This is very exciting. “
The events surrounding the death of Ötzi are still being discussed. The wounds are pointing to violent clashes, and others say the Ötzi, who was attacked, fled to the mountains. But Maixner says that your last meal points to a slightly different story: “I personally think you’re ready for a walk.”
The two completed arrows at the end made of deer skin with a mixture of cereals and meats show that you do not have a fresh meal. Instead, in the hours before his death, Ötzi exhausted the contents of a well-prepared package.