Ancient Greek’s own polytheistic system of beliefs, in the course of its period, the presentation of the offerings given to the 12 great gods, and in the course of time, celebrated with great festivities, caused a special day and feast.
The offerings of Greek civilization, which stands mainly with agriculture, animal husbandry and trade, are generally; the soil fertility of that year was on behalf of the harvest and blessing of the disease and the animals. These festivals and festivals were often performed by sacrificing animals, by devoting to the temples dedicated to the gods, or by ritual or dancing to enhance the satisfaction of the Gods, accompanied by music.
In this file, we will examine Demeter / Persephone, Dionysus, Apollon and Athena festivals organized to support agricultural activities that are closely related to the ancient Greek world;
1- Festivals held in honor of Demeter / Persephone
In his works, Demeter referred to him as ‘the queen with a beautiful braided hair’; the goddess of the fields, the fertility, the harvest, feeding the mortals. One day, when Persephone, who was born from her association with Zeus, was picked up in the meadow while she was picking flowers, the law of Hades was buried.
The most common festival in the name of Demeter was the Thermophoria festival. This festival, which corresponds to the September calendar, was the day when the seed was celebrated. Although we know that there is a male-dominated social order in the ancient world, we see that women are at the forefront of the festivities which include abundance in this style. The symbolization of fertility and fertility during this period also symbolized her at this festival.
At the Thermophoria festival, which lasted three days and three nights, women came to the temple of Demeter with the landlady and lived around the temple for three days. The obscene jokes made during the festival and the symbol of the phallus used in the festival suggest that this festival was not only organized for agricultural fertility but also for feminine fertility.
Skirophoria, which was thought to be celebrated between June and July before the Thermophoria festival, was also a very common parade of ceremonies. In the Shirophoria, women who had kept their body clean for the Thermophoria festival, first sacrificed a pig for Demeter, and then entered a large cave where the ceremony took place, clapping their hands to expel the snakes they had eaten inside. They would gather the decayed meat of the pigs and mix them with the harvested seeds to harvest the fall time. They believed that their actions would give abundance to the seeds and to bolster the harvest. The reason why the ritual happens with the pig is; When Persephone was hijacked by Hades, the pigs were swarmed with the pigs and the pigs were seen as a symbol of abundance.
2. Festivals held in honor of Dionysos
According to the ancient Greek myth, Dionysus was the son of Semele, the daughter of the King of Thebes Kadmos, from Zeus. But because Zeus’ wife, Hera, jealous of Semele, one day in disguise, she walks to Semele and says: Ğ Beg Zeus, and he may show you in glory as a god in all glory. ”Even if it doesn’t exist, it will ultimately fulfill Semele’s will. But when Zeus reveals itself with lightning and thunder, Semele burns. In the meantime, the baby in his belly Dionysus falls. Zeus immediately takes the baby and puts it in his calf and gives him a second time here. Although Doraysos went after him in order to harm Dionysus and played various games for him, he could not go further. Dionysus, who found vine and grape and obtained the wine, had traveled all over the world and took the wine and wine everywhere.
( Wine and Production in Ancient Greek Culture )
In the narrations, the procession of Dionysus was called thiosos. In addition to the silenos, satrites and nymphs, Bakkhalar was also included in this procession. The Bacchae; God celebrated the religious ceremonies of Dionysus. Bakkhalar, Dionysos’ naked body, representing the naked body of the gazelle pelts, heads of ivy wreaths wrapped and the hands of the pine cone at the ends of the trunk wrapped in vines leaves, the mountains, dancing in the forest by dancing themselves.
The most famous festivities of Dionysus, the symbol of sexual cohesion, wine, grapes, vine and lust that came with them, are the Dionysia of the Dionysia. The most important information about this festival is seen in Aristophanes’ ist Kömürcüler önemli. The most important feature of this festival was the so-called phallophoros during the festival, which was carved from wood and carried a gigantic phallos (penis) along the festival. They believed that the abundance of reproduction in the reproduction bakkhalar often stuck in these soil phallus. So the phallos would fertilize and fertilize the soil. Married women were not allowed to attend these festivals. Only single women attended, and they carried fruit baskets with phallos placed perpendicular to the center during the ceremony.
It is known that the ancient and biggest festival in the ancient cities of Athens and Ionia is the Anthesteria Festival. The first grape harvest before the festival was expected to be fermented with raw grapes and grapes that were put on hold for 40 days. At the time of the Anthesteria, the preparation of the wines had to be finished and ready to drink. People began to taste the first wine of the new harvest, while young men were swinging on wine overalls and young girls were swinging on the swings. The festival was named with three names on three different days. The first day was called. Pithoigia ir on the day of the draft, es choes gün on the day of the test on the second day and “khytrai” at the third day. Three days and three nights in this festivity with prayers and drunkenness of wine, everyone – including the slaves – sat in the wine. Even in places close to the temple, even drinking water,
3. Festivals held in honor of Apollo and Artemis
Leto gives birth to Apollo and Artemis from Zeus, but this is a very difficult process. No one who feared Hera’s wrath did not want Leto to bear on her land. Only the island of Delos accepted it, but it also had a condition. The temple of the god that will be born to the island of Delos, which is rocky and shallow, will be made, and none of the gods will be blessed by this land. Thus, Apollo was born after a difficult birth. Apollon, whose name means olm bright, radiant “, became the god associated with the sun in the ancient Greek world. Although the sun god Helios, the people’s sun was more associated with Apollo than Helios. In his Iliad, his skills about hunting and riding are also mentioned. His brother, Artemis, was a goddess identified with the Moon. Walking in the woods with animals, short dress, sandals, Artemis, who was a yaman hunter with a bow and arrow, was the goddess symbolizing abundance and symbolizing abundance. Apollon, the god of knowledge, music, hunting, and the goddess of agile, young, fertility and virginity, Artemis was a guest of many festivals in Anatolia and the Greek world.
The most famous festival in honor of Artemis and Apollon was the Thargelia Festival. At this festival, while agriculture and Demeter were celebrating, both the goddess Demeter and god Apollon were celebrated because the date coincided with the birth date of Apollo and Artemisin. Researchers draw attention to two features of this festival; the first was pharmakos (the person who was sacrificed to get rid of the curse that fell on the city like famine or disease) and the second day the product offerings. In some sources, the pharmakos which they brought to the seaside by the participants of the ceremony burned on a heap they had obtained from their hoops and then threw their ashes into the sea. At the end of all these rituals, it was believed that all hunger, inefficiency and diseases would be thrown out of the city. Women in the city