The artifacts of the Bronze Age, which were brought to the surface in the south of the Urals, have been an important research object for archaeologists all over the world for many years. Scientists from South Ural State University, together with international colleagues from the US and Germany, have been studying for over a decade, a necropolis (Kamenny Ambar-5) located 280 km from Chelyabinsk. Developments in modern genetics allow the answer to many questions about the history of the necropolis.
Researchers and students under the supervision of Russian Historian Professor Andrey Epimakhov from the South Ural State University Institute of Social and Human Sciences conduct an excavation work in the south of Chelyabinsk region. Kamenny Ambar is a well-equipped Bronze Age settlement located in the Kartalinsky district. Four thousand years ago, there lived people with a specific lifestyle, unique cultural traditions and world views. The well-equipped settlement and funeral complexes created by these people are of particular interest to archaeologists today.
Andrey Apimakhov, “Modern archeology is a very dynamic science. Today, interdisciplinary research plays a major role. For example, we can study social relations as well as researching the living conditions of the environment and ancient people. Our goal is to expand existing knowledge and discover new aspects of the life of this ancient population. First, we are researching people and trying to reconstruct the history of their lives to the greatest extent possible. From this point of view, our work is similar to the work of ethnographers. “
The international team of researchers from South Ural State University and Pittsburg University is reviewing the remains discovered in the Kamenny Ambar-5 grave area. Physical anthropologists have started a comprehensive investigation to determine the age and race of each individual and also whether they have suffered any injuries or illnesses.
“One of the mysteries of the burial ground is that there are not more than 50 adults in the graves and about 70% of the burials are children of various ages. Measured funeral equipment and fattening animals buried with rituals, including sheep victims. Adults are buried with cows, horses and dogs. “
Researchers succeeded in accumulating large amounts of DNA material. Gender of the children was determined by genomic mapping. Genetic scientists have confirmed that archaeologists claim that girls are embroidered with work tools. Research conducted on the remains of Kamenny Ambar residents showed that the formation of socialization and gender roles began at the age of 2 or 3 years.
Scientists from the South Ural State University said, “Constants have been studied separately to see if there is any disease, but no evidence of an epidemic or dangerous disease has been found. Only a very small number of people had lived as far as reaching their biological maturity, a sign that the environment was unfavorable, these people had a short life span and lasted for an average of 50 years. “
A large number of military equipment was found in the excavation area, including a spear and parts from the war machine. However, as a result of extensive investigations, it was revealed that these objects were not used in the war. Scientists suggest that such a short life span is a regional adaptive response to the unfavorable and possibly variable environment. According to one, settlement residents were a group of migrants to the present-day South Urals.
Migration in the Bronze Age was a difficult process. It progressed progressively. Today, scientists know that migration is from the West to the East. However, since the characteristics of a number of Eastern European cultures can be traced clearly in terms of culture, genetic similarities have been discovered with Central European nations, including Germany and Poland today.
Professor Epimachov said, “Reconstructions of skulls have been made, we can visually show the resident residents in the Kamenny Ambar burial area at the moment. These people were the southern representatives of European ethnicity with a shaped facial skeleton and protruding noses. They were attracting more attention than local residents. This proves they are immigrants. Their ancestors were representatives of European ethnicity, but from a different genre. “
The researchers also succeeded in overseeing the hypothesis that residents were animal breeders and farmers. In this direction, a comprehensive collection of plant remains was obtained. Analyzes made show that cultivated products do not exist, which in turn disproves the theory.
Andrey Epimakhov, “we were able to identify that they collected wild plants and partly engaged in fishing and hunting. However, these were complementary activities: their lives were based on cow, sheep and horse feeding. For this reason, we can say with great certainty that these people are resident animal breeders. “